When in Doubt, Shout - Scientists at Northwestern University found that when a person is questioning their beliefs, they tend to promote and advocate for those beliefs even more strongly.
The Dunning-Kruger Effect - In a psychological study, Dunning and Kruger determined that uneducated or incompetent people are likely to overestimate their knowledge or ability and be overly confident. The Dunning-Kruger effect describes that "ignorance carries with it the inability to accurately assess one's own ignorance."
Cognitive Dissonance - Cognitive dissonance is when one has inconsistent or contradicting beliefs or values; it also refers to the feeling of uneasiness when one is faced with evidence that contradicts their beliefs.
Confirmation Bias - One's likelihood to interpret new experiences or information so that it confirms their already held beliefs is known as confirmation bias.
Fake News: Sources that entirely fabricate information, disseminate deceptive content, or grossly distort actual news reports.
Satire: Sources that use humor, irony, exaggeration, ridicule, and false information to comment on current events.
Extreme Bias: Sources that come from a particular point of view and may rely on propaganda, decontextualized information, and opinions distorted as facts.
Conspiracy Theory: Sources that are well-known promoters of kooky conspiracy theories.
Rumor Mill: Sources that traffic in rumors, gossip, innuendo, and unverified claims.
State News: Sources in repressive states operating under government sanction.
Junk Science: Sources that promote pseudoscience, metaphysics, naturalistic fallacies, and other scientifically dubious claims.
Hate News: Sources that actively promote racism, misogyny, homophobia, and other forms of discrimination.
Clickbait: Sources that provide generally credible content, but use exaggerated, misleading, or questionable headlines, social media descriptions, and/or images.
Proceed With Caution: Sources that may be reliable but whose contents require further verification.
Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers: ...and Other People Who Care about Facts - An ebook by Mike Caulfield, director of blended and online learning at Washington State University Vancouver.
Tips for Spotting Fake News - From the University of Oregons's School of Journalism and Communication.
Making Sense of the News: News Literacy Lessons for Digital Citizens - A free online MOOC (massive open online course) for people who want to know more.
Fake news isn’t a recent problem in the US—it almost destroyed Abraham Lincoln - A historical example.
The Long and Brutal History of Fake News - Fake news isn't unique to the United States. More information on fake news from a historical perspective.